Jojoba Oil Research:
Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.
Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.
Birch bark research and development.
Nat Prod Rep. 2006 Dec;23(6):919-42. Epub 2006 Sep 18.
This review will detail progress made in the previous decade on the chemistry and bioactivity of birch bark extractive products. Current and future applications of birch bark natural products in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of cancer, HIV,and other human pathogens are reviewed. Current developments in the technology of birch bark processing are discussed. New approaches for the synthesis of potentially valuable birch bark triterpenoid derivatives are also reviewed.
Advances in the study of structural modifications and biological activities of betulinic acids
Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Nov;45(11):1339-45.
Betulinic acids are lupine-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins commonly found in some plants of Betulaceae family, especially in the bark of betula alba (birch). The potent anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of betulinic acids have been greatly concerned. The natural betulinic acids include betulinic acid, 23-hydroxy betulinic acid, betulin and so on. Some investigations on the structural modifications of betulinic acids were carried out, and many derivatives with excellent biological activity have been obtained nowadays. In this paper, the research advances of the structural modification of betulinic acids, as well as their anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities are reviewed.
Chemistry, biological activity, and chemotherapeutic potential of betulinic acid for the prevention and treatment of cancer and HIV infection.
Med Res Rev. 2004 Jan;24(1):90-114.
3beta-Hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (betulinic acid) is a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene that is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. A variety of biological activities have been ascribed to betulinic acid including anti-inflammatory and in vitro antimalarial effects. However, betulinic acid is most highly regarded for its anti-HIV-1 activity and specific cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cell lines. Interest in developing even more potent anti-HIV agents based on betulinic acid has led to the discovery of a host of highly active derivatives exhibiting greater potencies and better therapeutic indices than some current clinical anti-HIV agents. While its mechanism of action has not been fully determined, it has been shown that some betulinic acid analogs disrupt viral fusion to the cell in a post-binding step through interaction with the viral glycoprotein gp41 whereas others disrupt assembly and budding of the HIV-1 virus. With regard to its anticancer properties, betulinic acid was previously reported to exhibit selective cytotoxicity against several melanoma-derived cell lines. However, more recent work has
demonstrated that betulinic acid is cytotoxic against other non-melanoma (neuroectodermal and malignant brain tumor) human tumor varieties. Betulinic acid appears to function by means of inducing apoptosis in cells irrespective of their p53 status. Because of its selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and favorable therapeutic index, even at doses up to 500 mg/kg body weight, betulinic acid is a very promising new chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HIV infection and cancer.
Pentacyclic triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane and ursane group as tools in cancer therapy.
Planta Med. 2009 Dec;75(15):1549-60. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1186102.
Today cancer treatment is not only a question of eliminating cancer cells by induction of cell death. New therapeutic strategies also include targeting the tumour microenvironment, avoiding angiogenesis, modulating the immune response or the chronic inflammation that is often associated with cancer. Furthermore, the induction of redifferentiation of dedifferentiated cancer cells is an interesting aspect in developing new therapy strategies. Plants provide a broad spectrum of potential drug substances for cancer therapy with multifaceted effects and targets. Pentacyclic triterpenes are one group of promising secondary plant metabolites. This review summarizes the potential of triterpenes belonging to the lupane, oleanane or ursane group, to treat cancer by different modes of action. Since Pisha et al. reported in 1995 that betulinic acid is a highly promising anticancer drug after inducing apoptosis in melanoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo, experimental work focused on the apoptosis inducing mechanisms of betulinic acid and other triterpenes. The antitumor effects were subsequently confirmed in a series of cancer cell lines from other origins, for example breast, colon, lung and neuroblastoma. In addition, in the last decade many studies have shown further effects that justify the expectation that triterpenes are useful to treat cancer by several modes of action. Thus, triterpene acids are known mainly for their antiangiogenic effects as well as their differentiation inducing effects. In particular, lupane-type triterpenes, such as betulin, betulinic acid and lupeol, display anti-inflammatory activities which often accompany immune modulation.
Triterpene acids as well as triterpene monoalcohols and diols also show an antioxidative potential. The pharmacological potential of triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane or ursane type for cancer treatment seems high; although up to now no clinical trial has been published using these triterpenes in cancer therapy. They provide a multitarget potential for coping with new cancer strategies. Whether this is an effective approach for cancer treatment has to be proven.
Because various triterpenes are an increasingly promising group of plant metabolites, the utilisation of different plants as their sources is of interest. Parts of plants, for example birch bark, rosemary leaves, apple peel and mistletoe shoots are rich in triterpenes and provide different triterpene compositions.
Due to its anti-inflammatory effect, jojoba oil is used in folk medicine to assist in wound healing, treat skin infections and other skin afflictions, and even slow the aging of skin. A study published in "Pharmacology Research" in 2005 found jojoba oil reduced inflammation in rats. It's used topically to calm eczema and psoriasis symptoms. You can also apply it to your skin to soothe sunburns and reduce inflammation from an injury.
Jojoba oil may have anti-acne effects, based on the findings of a study published in 2012 in "'Forschende Komplementärmedizin." Scientists applied a jojoba oil clay mask to participants with acne-lesioned skin two to three times a week. After six weeks, on average there was a 54 percent reduction in total skin lesions. Both inflamed and noninflamed lesions were reduced. The scientists concluded jojoba oil is effective for treating acne and acne-related skin lesions.