Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.
Anwar F1, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH.
ytother Res. 2007 Jan;21(1):17-25.
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree.
Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.
Chuang PH1, Lee CW, Chou JY, Murugan M, Shieh BJ, Chen HM.
Bioresour Technol. 2007 Jan;98(1):232-6. Epub 2006 Jan 6.
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.
Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.
Atawodi SE1, Atawodi JC, Idakwo GA, Pfundstein B, Haubner R, Wurtele G, Bartsch H, Owen RW.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):710-6. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.0057.
Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.
Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.
Marrufo T1, Nazzaro F, Mancini E, Fratianni F, Coppola R, De Martino L, Agostinho AB, De Feo V.
olecules. 2013 Sep 9;18(9):10989-1000. doi: 10.3390/molecules180910989.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24022760
The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil.
Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.
Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MR.
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2003 Apr-Jun;4(2):131-9.
The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis.
Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells.
Adejumo OE, Kolapo AL, Folarin AO.
Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Nigeria.
Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012 Apr;4(2):118-22. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.94812.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids.
Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses.
Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH.
Phytother Res. 2007 Jan;21(1):17-25.
Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. email@example.com
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. It has an impressive range of medicinal uses with high nutritional value. Different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol. In addition to its compelling water purifying powers and high nutritional value, M. oleifera is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine, particularly in South Asia. This review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along with pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree.
Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L.
Bennett RN, Mellon FA, Foidl N, Pratt JH, Dupont MS, Perkins L, Kroon PA.
J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jun 4;51(12):3546-53.
Phytochemicals, Nutrition Division, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich, Malawi. firstname.lastname@example.org
Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of s and M. stenopetala from a single were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics (flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cinnamates). M. oleifera and M. stenopetala seeds only contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate at high concentrations. Roots of M. oleifera and M. stenopetala had high concentrations of both 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate. Leaves from both species contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate. Only 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate was detected in M. oleifera bark tissue. M. oleifera leaves contained quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside). M. oleifera leaves also contained 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Leaves of M. stenopetala contained quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside
(rutin) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Neither proanthocyanidins nor anthocyanins were detected in any of the tissues of either species.
Kaempferol, a potential cytostatic and cure for inflammatory disorders.
Rajendran P1, Rengarajan T1, Nandakumar N2, Palaniswami R3, Nishigaki Y1,Nishigaki I4.
Eur J Med Chem. 2014 Oct 30;86:103-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Aug 5.1NPO-International Laboratory of Biochemistry, 1-166, Uchide, Nakagawa-ku, Nagoya 454-0926, Japan.
0926, Japan. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Kaempferol (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g., tea, broccoli, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine (e.g., Ginkgo biloba, Tilia spp, Equisetum spp, Moringa oleifera, Sophora japonica and propolis). Its anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in various disease models, including those for encephalomyelitis, diabetes, asthma, and
carcinogenesis. Moreover, kaempferol act as a scavenger of free radicals and superoxide radicals as well as preserve the activity of various anti-oxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. The anticancer effect of this flavonoid is mediated through different modes of action, including anti-proliferation, apoptosis induction,
cell-cycle arrest, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis activities. In addition, kaempferol was found to exhibit its anticancer activity through the modulation of multiple molecular targets including p53 and STAT3, through the activation of caspases, and through the generation of ROS. The anti-tumor effects of kaempferol have also been investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The combination of kaempferol and conventional chemotherapeutic drugs produces a greater therapeutic effect than the latter, as well as reduces the toxicity of the latter. In this review, we summarize the anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of kaempferol with a focus on its molecular targets and the possible use of this flavonoid for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Therapeutic Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Chronic Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia: A Review.
Chronic Disease Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Front Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 1;3:24. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00024. eCollection 2012.
Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of
diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support
for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined.
OTHER NUTRIENTS FOUND IN MORINGA:
CHLOROPHYLL: Moringa is one of the few foods that contain chlorophyll together with so many other nutrients. Chlorophyll is often referred to as the ‘blood of plants.” Studies have shown that it supports liver function and detoxification of the body.
BETA-SITOSTEROL: Beta-sitosterol is a specific plant sterol which has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels and also improve other blood lipid levels, bringing them to a more normal range. Plant sterols like beta-sitosterol are also proven to be very beneficial in preventing and treating prostate enlargement due to aging, and have been found to reduce the growth of prostate and colon cancer cells. Beta-sitosterol also boosts the immune system, has anti-inflammatory properties, helps normalize blood sugar, supports the pancreas, helps to heal ulcers and can alleviate cramps.
ZEATIN: Biochemical analysis has revealed that the Moringa leaves and leaf powder contain unusually high amounts of plant hormones named cytokinins, such as zeatin and the related dihyrozeatin. Scientists have found zeatin in very low concentrations in plants, with zeatin concentrations varying between .00002 mcg/g material to .02 mcg/g. The zeatin concentration in Moringa leaves gathered from various parts of the world was found to be very high, between 5 mcg and 200 mcg/g material, or thousands of times more concentrated than most plants studied so far.
Cytokinins function as plant hormones, which are naturally occurring growth promoters and factors that delay the process of aging in many plants. In cultured human cells, cytokinins have proven to delay biochemical modifications associated with aging. Zeatin has potent antioxidant properties, and has been shown to protect the skin and increase the activity of known anti-oxidant enzymes that naturally fight aging. It has also been shown to protect animals against neuronal toxicity induced by age specific factors, and in the laboratory setting, to inhibit cancer cell growth and induce their differentiation back into normal cells.
LUTEIN: Moringa has extraordinary amounts of lutein. 100 g of leaves contain more than 70 mg, while the recommended daily amount for the best protective antioxidant activity is 5 – 20 mg for an adult. Lutein promotes healthy eyes by reducing the risk of macular degeneration.
CAFFEOYLQUINIC ACIDS: Moringa leaves contain 0.5 – 1% caffeoylquinic acids, coming very close to the content that makes artichokes famous. Caffeoylquinic acids are antioxidants considered to be choleretic (bile increasing which helps to digest dietary fats), hepatoprotective (effective against hepatitis and other liver diseases), cholesterol-reducing, and diuretic.
NOTE: Complex mixtures of naturally occurring antioxidants from plants are the most effective and beneficial protectors against oxidation and aging. Moringa contains many other antioxidants including alpha carotene, xanthins, kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin.
Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Moringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product.
Saini RK1, Shetty NP1, Prakash M2, Giridhar P1.
Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 570 020 India.
J Food Sci Technol. 2014 Sep;51(9):2176-82. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1264-3. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
Fresh leaves of M. oleifera plants were analysed for nutritionally important phytoconstituents and feasible commercially used dehydration method were evaluated to preserve these in dehydrated leaves. Trans-lutein, trans-β-carotene and trans-zeaxanthin were found as the major carotenoids in fresh leaves, accounting for 36.9, 18.2 and 5.5 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Similarly, high amounts of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and total phenolic content (271.0, 36.9 and 512.0 mg/100 g FW), respectively were recorded in leaves. α-tocopherol was the most stable vitamin under all drying conditions (86.4 % retention during oven drying), compare to other studied phytoconstituents. Cabinet tray drying was found as efficient as lyophilisation to retain maximum content of total carotenoids (60.1 %), trans-β-carotene (90.1 %), 13-cis-lutein (93.2 %), and DPPH activity, however, lutein (51.3 %) and ascorbic acid (97.8 %) was best preserved by lyophilisation. During dehydration, significant trans to cis isomerization of β-carotene and lutein was also recorded. A ready to eat (RTE) chutney powder (adjunct) was developed from dehydrated leaves. The product was evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and was accepted with a high overall quality score. The present investigation explores the nutritional potential of M. oleifera leaves and suitable methods of drying that could be useful for processed food formulation.