ZEATIN CYTOKININS RESEARCH:
Principal component analysis of hormone profiling data suggests an important role for cytokinins in regulating leaf growth and senescence of salinized tomato.
Albacete A1, Ghanem ME, Dodd IC, Pérez-Alfocea F.
Plant Signal Behav. 2010 Jan;5(1):45-8.
High throughput analytical methods allow phytohormonal profiling, but the magnitude of the data generated makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the physiological roles of different compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a mathematical tool to evaluate relationships between physiological and hormonal variables in two experiments with salinised tomato. When tomato plants (cv Boludo F1) were grafted onto a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a Solanum lycopersicum x S. cheesmaniae cross and grown under moderate salinity (75 mM NaCl) for 100 days under greenhouse conditions, PCA revealed an important role for leaf xylem cytokinins (CKs) in controlling leaf growth and photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) and thus crop productivity under salinity. PCA analysis from a similar experiment, with ungrafted tomato grown under highly saline (100 mM NaCl) conditions, that evaluated the temporal sequence of leaf growth (as relative growth rate, LRGR) and senescence and hormone concentrations, revealed a similar influence of CKs on both processes, since Fv/Fm and LRGR were strongly loaded along the two principal components and placed in the same cluster as leaf trans-zeatin and/or related to other CK-related parameters. The conservative behaviour of the eigen vectors for Fv/Fm and the analyzed phytohormones in different compartments (xylem, leaf and root) between different experiments suggests an important role for CKs in regulating leaf senescence, while CKs and other hormones seem to regulate leaf growth under salinity.
Gerontomodulatory and youth-preserving effects of zeatin on human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro.
Rejuvenation Res. 2005 Spring;8(1):46-57.
Our studies have shown that zeatin, (6-[4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enylamino]adenine), a cytokinin plant growth factor, has gerontomodulatory, youth preserving and anti-aging effects on serially passaged human adult skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro. There were no immediate negative or toxic effects in terms of cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell survival, cytoskeletal organization, and cellular growth by treatment with zeatinconcentrations between 1 and 200 microM. During long-term treatment, cells could be maintained throughout their replicative lifespan in the presence of 40, 80, and 200 microM zeatin, but the optimal concentration of zeatin's anti-aging and youth preserving effects was found to be 80 microM. Life-long serial passaging of human skin fibroblasts in the presence of zeatin resulted in the prevention of cell enlargement, reduction of intracellular debris, prevention of actin polymerization, and enhancement of cellular ability to decompose hydrogen peroxide and to cope with ethanol and oxidative stresses. Most importantly, anti-aging and beneficial effects of zeatin were observed without any induction of additional cell proliferation or an increase in the maximum proliferative capacity, thus ruling out any potentially harmful and carcinogenic effects.